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This page is a work in progress, as I can find time to update the various categories

Before I continue….Please be aware of anything that sounds too good to be true. If a guitar is priced too low, given woods and construct, there must be a reason.  As you can probably imagine, it is probably NOT a good reason.

Does this apply solely to guitars? No….of course not.

Make no mistake…Brazilian RW, Cocobolo and other quality woods for tops or backs, do not come cheap, are very difficult to work with, taking many hours to prepare properly. There is a reason that these woods are expensive.

They are difficult to find in “quality”. There is a difference between what one board supplier calls Master Grade and another supplier calls AA grade.

They are difficult to find in any quantity, becoming rarer by the year.

They are difficult to prepare, requiring anywhere from 20-50 hours of prep time alone.


Say a master luthier (I do not use the term loosely either…there are master luthiers and then there are guys who think they know how to build a guitar) spends an average of 30 hours on a back for a guitar.

What is the bench-rate that we would apply to that cost? $30/hour…$40?…$50? Or do you believe that some of them should work for less than $8/hour? But I digress….

So where does any builder get off charging $1500-$2500 in TOTAL for a Brazilian or other exotic Rosewood “high end, master grade, masterpiece, getting sick ad infinitum” guitar given…

1. the cost of the wood…2. the cost of the prep time….3. the cost of the “other” materials, i.e. tuning machines, top woods, ebony, headstock, neck, bridge material, tools, finish time (which is huge btw!), hard-shell case, shipping, insurance, utilities, and other myriad costs, never you mind the actual building of the rest of the guitar?

Really, think about this a bit before you’re wowed by the Brazilian RW CG being sold for cheap. Or the Cocobolo, or the Honduran, or the Burmese RW….

There is a reason. It will never be a good one.

Now, on to the real point of this particular page….

Classical Guitar Tone Wood


Sitka Spruce – Sitka Spruce can be quite stiff, where it’s main use is in Acoustic Steel strings, testament to its toughness. Thinned and tapped properly by a master luthier, one can achieve a brighter ringing across the spectrum, especially in the trebles. This wood in its better grades, will evidence silk or medullar rays across its grain. Bear-claw markings across the grain may also be evident.


Adirondack Red Spruce – Quality wood in appropriate size is very difficult to come by in these times. The wood gives us a very bold, forceful tone with exceptional clarity. This is one of the reasons you will find this wood used in vintage instruments. Finding quality boards of master grade is rare.


 Engelmann Spruce – This spruce wood can be very uniform and consistent for the builder. A bit softer than typical German Spruce, this wood primarily comes from the Canada. The wood can be a bit stiffer than your typical Sitka Spruce. Finishing to a gorgeous gloss in the hands of a master builder, it produces some fantastic looking and sounding guitars.


 Redwood – Numerous well built guitars that I’ve had using Western Redwood of good stock have produced an instrument with a very woody sound, very clear as you would find in a good Spruce top, yet warm as you would find in a regular Cedar top. Richly brown and red, sometimes with gorgeous markings, this wood produces some beautiful ringing tones. The wood must be older growth for appropriate stiffness needed in a quality instrument and should always be harvested responsibly.

One of my favorite all time guitars was made with this incredible wood – Hippner #506


Western Red Cedar – A wood that is well known to be stable regarding environmental conditions, she is a soft wood, with warm coloring, warm tap tones and a straighter grain. Some of the finest guitars are being produced using this gorgeous ruddy wood.


Port Orford Cedar – Stiff and light this wood is less prone to splitting, which may be why it is used in some of the finest violins and cellos. A beautifully clear sound is evident in these tops, yet able to evidence a warmth that may be a bit surprising. One of my personally favorite top woods, I wouldn’t ignore a well made guitar using this wood.


Italian Spruce – same species as European Spruce, though different characteristics due to climate and environmental issues.  A beautiful Spruce, from the violin, viola, and cello makers of Cremona and surrounding areas. Crystal trebles, tight grain to be almost imperceptible, the trees of this wood typically grow at high altitudes of at least 1000 to 1500 meters above sea level, they are long lived and highly resistant to the cold weather. It is also known as Hazel Spruce which is usually very light, elastic where planing of the wood will cause a shimmering. Harmonic tapping and the purity of such, regarding this wood is clearly evident.

An incredible example of this wood can be found in an instrument built by Woodley White in 2009


German Spruce – also known as European Spruce, Picea Abies – German Spruce is a common term for Spruce coming from Europe, but it is not really accurate as guitar grade Spruce has not come out of Germany for many years now.  They are typically found from Norway to Central Europe including Yugoslavia.  Master Grade boards can expect the excellent, slightly golden-colored tonewood that, for years now, has been the staple of the bowed instrument world, and is always a favorite among high-end steel string and classical guitar builders.

I have a few guitars using actual German Spruce – very rare.  Please see some fine examples of this wood being used by Manuel Adalid in his personal shop in Alboraya Spain.

Manuel Adalid Classical Guitar Custom Spruce Cocobolo

Manuel Adalid Hauser ’37 Bench Copy


Alpine Spruce – Alpine/Italian spruce is of the same species as German spruce (picea excelsa) but has a slightly flatter coloration (more of a basic white) and a more focused tone. Guitars made from this wood have a sweet, singing quality.   Ashley Sanders and Pedro Maldonado have sent me guitars with this fantastic and very expensive top wood.  They are extraordinary guitars.

– Pedro Maldonado F1 Flamenco #1796

Ashley Sanders #60




East Indian Rosewood – By far the most popular sound wood available, it is known for its workability and consistency. Given the numerous examples of this tone wood that I’ve seen over the decades, it is remarkable to note the various color ranges, where some have fooled me into thinking that I was looking at Brazilian Rosewood. Ruddy looking to deep and dark brown, straight-grained, and extremely stable, it is a favorite amongst the many top-notch luthiers out there such as Kenny Hill, Friedrich, D’Andon, Ken Whisler, Pete Barthell as well as numerous Spanish builders, etc.

Please see our selection of Kenny Hill Signatures and Performance Series guitars for fine examples of this tone wood


Brazilian Rosewood – Difficult to work with, difficult to get (legally), Brazilian Rosewood is the benchmark for all other Back woods. Dense and wet, she never really stops leaking. It’s denseness lends itself to a strong and bold tone, with crystalline ringing in the trebles.

Luthiers must work with dried specimens (and I’m talking years here), wiped with acetone, glued quickly, filling with pumice and shellac, and doing it numerous times. Even the best luthiers have trouble filling in the pores, where over time, the shellac still seeps in, leaving little check marks and or pocking marks. Subject to cracking, especially in less than ideal and consistent humidity and temperature conditions, the luthier and the player both must consider their environment at all times.

Much like Cocobolo, even more so, this wood commands a premium of anywhere from $1000-$3000 from a master luthier, given its rarity, its scarcity and its difficulty to work with in the luthier’s hands.

Anyone selling it for less than a premium has no idea what they are doing.  I have seen too many examples of poor workmanship and poor preparation by the so-called “luthier” when it comes to Brazilian RW or other exotic and oily woods. Go cheap and you will get what you pay for, I guarantee it, i.e. Paraguay? <shaking my head in disgust>…what? I speak my mind…get over it…ha!

Please see any of my guitars built with Brazilian Rosewood for excellent examples, including Kenny Hill Signature #3596 – Simon Marty 2011 – and 2 excellent examples by GV Rubio – also a Hermann Hauser III using some old school Brazilian


Cocobolo Rosewood – A beautiful wood in appearance as well as in workability. The wood ages to a superb and rich, ruddy brown complexion, sometimes with black streaking, lending a very handsome affect to superb guitars using this wood. Equal in temperament to Brazilian Rosewood, she evidences beauty and tonal quality throughout the spectrum, being heavier and wetter than most rosewoods. Its denseness is what lends guitars built with it to bring forth a very strong and bold tone. A bear to work with for the luthier, the woods must be cured (exactly like Brazilian RW) and glued properly.

This wood commands a premium by the luthier and rightly so. It can be difficult to work with, its dust is considered dangerous, but when done right, it is a superior back wood used in some of the finest guitars.  Please see our Jose Oribe 1994 Gran Suprema featuring exceptional use of this gorgeous wood.


Pau Ferro – Normally found in Brazil and Bolivia, Pau Ferro is a tight grained hardwood that has a similar feel and sound to rosewood, but is harder and slightly lighter in color. Pau Ferro has a percussive attack, excellent clarity, a fat low-end and a pronounced high-end sparkle. These characteristics make excellent cuts of Pau Ferro particularly well suited to classical guitar construction in the hands of a great builder.  Common names are Pau Ferro, Morado, Bolivian Rosewood, Santos Rosewood.  Its color can be varied from bright orange to deep chocolate, while being generally very straight grained.   It is of moderate difficulty to work with as it can blunt cutting tools rapidly.  Generally finishes very well, and has distinct and very pleasant odor.  A very nice wood for the classical guitar.  Example of this wood being used can be found in our Manuel Adalid 12 classical guitars.


Caviuna RW – an important Brazilian timber tree yielding a heavy hard dark-colored wood streaked with black

Common Name: Morado
Botanical Name: Machaerium scleroxylon
Other Common Names: Bolivian Rosewood, Caviuna, Jacaranda pardo, Pau Ferro
Common Uses: Musical instruments, furniture, desks, turnings, handles, decorative veneer, accents, inlay
Region: Central and South America
Country: Brazil, Bolivia

Heartwood Color – Dark brown to tan with irregular black-purplish stripes. Reportedly the wood has a strong resemblance to Brazilian Rosewood.
Grain – Grain is straight and has been described as undulating. The timber is reported to be less figured than Brazilian rosewood.
Texture – Texture is reported to be fine, and the wood tends to be fibrous.
Natural Durability  – The heartwood is reported to be very resistant to attack by decay fungi. Resistance to Impregnation


Macassar Ebony – A stable and handsome wood, it is a pleasure to work with as she bends and glues with a bit more facility than others. Guitars usually evidence a very even tone across the spectrum built with this wood. The evident alternating striping of this wood is very appealing. She can also be quite expensive in the best examples.


Koa – Hawaii’s version of Rosewood, she can be tough to work with but the results are most rewarding. Much like a porous Rosewood, she requires care by the luthier with respect to filling and preparation. The high tones achieved by Koa coupled with an excellent top might leave you wondering why luthier’s have not chosen to work it until recently.

She can be Curly in her appearance, with golden coloring and dark streaks,, she is a handsome wood as well as tonally consistent.


Wenge – (Millettia laurentii) – Common Name(s): Wenge – Distribution: Africa (Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zaire) – Tree Size: 60-90 ft (18-27 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameter – Average Dried Weight: 54 lbs/ft3 (870 kg/m3) – Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .72, .87 – Janka Hardness: 1,930 lbf (8,600 N)

Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a very dark brown with black streaks. Upon application of a wood finish (particularly an oil-finish) the wood can become nearly black.

Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a very coarse texture. Low natural luster.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; large pores in no specific arrangement; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; brown mineral deposits occasionally present; growth rings distinct; rays not visible without lens; parenchyma vasicentric to confluent, with wide bands of parenchyma typically as thick as the pores.

Rot Resistance: Very durable, and resistant to termite attack.

Workability: Can be difficult to work with hand and machine tools. Blunts tool edges. Sands unevenly due to differences in density between light and dark areas. Very splintery—care must be used when handling unfinished wood with bare hands, as splinters have an increased risk of infection. Very large pores can be difficult to fill if a perfectly smooth/level finish is desired.

Odor: Wenge has a faint, slightly bitter scent when being worked.

Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, breathing Wenge wood dust has been reported to cause central nervous system effects, irritation of the skin and eyes, and is a sensitizer. Also, Wenge splinters tend to take longer to heal and are more likely to go septic (get infected) than splinters from other woods. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information.

Pricing/Availability: Available in wide boards and veneer sheets. Prices are high, and are likely to remain so as supplies dwindle.

Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List. It is listed as endangered due to a population reduction of over 50% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.

Common Uses: Veneer, paneling, furniture, turned objects, and musical instruments.

Comments: Pronounced WHEN-gay, the wood has excellent strength and hardness properties, and is also dark enough to be used as a substitutes for ebony.

Please see our 2020 Douglass Scott #110 Spruce Wenge for a prime example of this gorgeous wood in use


Ziricote – Ziricote is the most dramatic member of the Cordia genus and stands apart from other exotic woods due to it’s unique grain lines that frequently depict spider webbing, marbled swirls, cloud bursts, mountains, valleys and other captivating patterns. The heartwood is reddish brown with irregular chocolate or black streaks that tend to form abstract art within itself. These color tones contrast nicely with the sapwood which ranges from creamy vanilla to golden tan. Artisan craftsmen are fond of incorporating this sapwood into their projects to maximize the final visual impact. It is a stunning combination indeed!  See an example of this wood used by Ashley Sanders of Australia and Larry Breslin of Oregon with his Floral Ziricote Classical Guitar.

With a density higher than rosewood, Ziricote turns very well. It is able to take a very smooth finish and a high polish. Ziricote is slightly brittle but also known as a good steam bending candidate and is proven to hold nails and screws well. This exotic hardwood is easy to work by hand or machine and is stable in use. Ziricote wood has a medium to fine texture and a straight to slightly interlocking grain. It has a tendency to develop end and surface checks during drying, but is stable afterwards. Quartersawn surfaces will sometimes display ray or flake patterns similar to Hard Maple. The highly figured spider web grain is similar to what can be found in Brazilian Rosewood only more complex. Surface has a natural waxy appearance and takes on a satin finish with simple sanding. * taken from (come on, I gotta love that website LOL)

Siricote, Ciricote, Zircote, Ziracote
Very limited growing region within Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize
Traditional Uses:
Instruments; Fine Furniture; Cabinetry; Inlays; Turnery; Flooring; Gunstocks


Pommele Sapele

Pommele Sapele is a warm brown wood from West and East Africa. The grain is  wavy and the texture fairly fine. Sapelle’s strength is medium and it is springy. It’s stability is medium. The lovely effect is that there are lighter and darker patches that reverse when viewed from a different angle. The effect is like curly maple, only the areas are larger.  The difference between Sapele and Pommele Sapele is that Pommele Sapele has an almost quilted look.

Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum)

Common Name(s): Sapele, Sapelli
Scientific Name: Entandrophragma cylindricum
Distribution: Africa
Tree Size: 100-150 ft (30-45 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (670 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .50, .67
Janka Hardness: 1,410 lbf (6,280 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 15,930 lbf/in2 (109.9 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,746,000 lbf/in2 (12.04 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 8,750 lbf/in2 (60.4 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.8%, Tangential: 7.2%, Volumetric: 12.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.5

Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a medium to dark reddish brown or purplish brown. Color tends to darken with age. Besides the common ribbon pattern seen on quartersawn boards, Sapele is also known for a wide variety of other figured grain patterns, such as: pommele, quilted, mottled, wavy, beeswing, and fiddleback.

Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked, and sometimes wavy. Fine uniform texture and good natural luster.

Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; large pores in no specific arrangement, few; solitary and radial multiples of 2-3; reddish brown deposits occasionally present; parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates, unilateral, and marginal; rays narrow to medium, spacing normal; ripple marks present.

Rot Resistance: Heartwood ranges from moderately durable to very durable in regard to decay resistance. Sapele is susceptible to insect attack.

Workability: Sapele can be troublesome to work in some machining operations, (i.e., planing, routing, etc.), resulting in tearout due to its interlocked grain. It will also react when put into direct contact with iron, becoming discolored and stained. Sapele has a slight blunting effect on cutters, but it turns, glues, and finishes well.

Odor: Sapele has a distinct, cedar-like scent while being worked.


Macacauba Rosewood is an interesting variety of dense South American hardwood, with varying patterns of grain and color. The wood is very dense, somewhat open grained with a medium to fine texture, coming from trees that achieve 75-80 feet of height and in and around 3′ of diameter.  This wood is called “the wood that sings”, referred to as “La Madera Que Canta”

Coloring can be anything from reddish to purplish brown with streaking and sap lines.  Very attractive, straight-grained wood.  It is used in the finest furnitures and musical instruments, and is a viable and worthy alternative to Brazilian Rosewood, evidencing many of the former’s density and tonal characteristics.  This wood is also called many names such as Amazon Rosewood, Macacauba, Macacauba preta, Macacauba vermelha, Macacawood, Macacahuba, Nambar, Vencola, Roble colorado, Grenadillo, Granadillo, Coyote, and Jacaranda.  The wood is grown in various regions of Central & South America including  — Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Nicaragua, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela. – majority of information taken from


Malaysian Blackwood – (Diospyros ebonasea)

Common Name(s): Malaysian Blackwood
Scientific Name: Diospyros ebonasea

Color/Appearance: Heartwood ranges from a medium brown to nearly black. Commonly with black veining and contrasting brown or reddish streaks. Heartwood can also have a greenish hue. Sharply demarcated sapwood is a pale yellow to tan color, and is typically present on most pieces. Insect holes, particularly in the sapwood, are common.
Grain/Texture: Grain is generally straight, with a very fine, even texture and good natural luster.
Workability: Tends to be rather difficult to work, due to its high density, blunting effect on cutters. The wood is also prone to checking and splitting during drying, and drying defects are not uncommon. Tends to be difficult to steam bend. Turns well.
Odor: No characteristic odor.

Pricing/Availability: Seldom available, Malaysian Blackwood is very expensive, just as expensive as any solid-black piece of true ebony. The wood is usually sold as guitar sets, or as small turning blanks.
Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, because the scientific name Diospyros ebonasea is unverified, the wood may actually be a different species. Many Diospyros species are listed as vulnerable or endangered.
Common Uses: Acoustic guitars, turned objects, knife handles, and inlay.
Comments: The term blackwood may be an unnecessarily modest appellation, as this wood is classified as a true ebony in the Diospyros genus, and it’s price and scarcity fully reflect that. However, the actual scientific name Diospyros ebonasea is, as of yet, completely unsubstantiated. It’s more than likely another known Diospyros species. Nonetheless, despite the semantic quirks of the wood’s common and scientific names, Malaysian Blackwood remains a remarkably beautiful hardwood with unique patterns and coloration that are in a class by itself.
Malaysian Blackwood is also favored for acoustic guitars, and is said to be an excellent tonewood.

– taken from


I will add to this Page as I find more time.  Thank you kindly for your attention.  Rich 631-335-5447